Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench is said to be the deepest point of the oceans in the world and the deepest site on the Earth’s crust on its surface. Mariana Trench of Micronesia is one of the Natural Wonders of the Earth in Oceania. The approximate length of the Marianna Trench is about 1,580 miles and the width is 43 miles. Mariana Trench, Micronesia lies in the west of Pacific Ocean towards the eastern side of the Mariana Islands. More than 14 Mariana Islands are located in the eastern end of the trench. The Challenger Deep is a tiny slot-shaped valley in the floor of the Mariana Trench. At the Challenger Deep, the trench reaches its maximum depth of 10,924 meters.

The Mariana Islands and the Mariana Trench are major section of a geologic structure popularly called the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc system. The island chain was formed when the western periphery of the Pacific Plate fell down underneath the Mariana plate which was volcanically active plate of the Earth. This formed the subduction region. Subduction is a geological phenomenon where one plate and its oceanic crust get subducted underneath a different plate with its oceanic crust. The Mariana Trench was thus formed by ocean-to-ocean subduction towards the east of the island chain and today noted as the deepest point of the oceans in the Earth and the lowermost point of the Earth’s crust.

Geologic theory concluded that the waters of the ocean were trapped in the faults of the subduction region of the Pacific Plate and were heated by the high temperatures of the earth’s depth and the pressure so formed from the resultant steam gave rise to such hydrothermal activity and volcanic activity and a new island was created and named as Mariana Islands.